Greens, Kale

55 Pesticide Residues Found by the USDA Pesticide Data Program1,2,3

Human Health Effects:

9Known or Probable Carcinogens4
27Suspected Hormone Disruptors
10Neurotoxins
10 Developmental or Reproductive Toxins

Environmental Effects:

23 Honeybee Toxins5

Pesticide Residues Found in Greens, Kale:

What Pesticide? How Often is it Found?6 Conventional vs. Organic Toxicity7 Other Foods with this Pesticide
DCPA 53.1% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Imidacloprid 30.3% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
DDE p,p' 27.2% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Azoxystrobin 15.3% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Cypermethrin 15.0% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Methoxyfenozide 14.3% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Pyraclostrobin 12.1% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Endosulfan I 9.9% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Dieldrin 9.9% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Endosulfan II 8.6% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Acetamiprid 8.6% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Boscalid 7.6% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Endosulfan sulfate 7.3% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Spinosad A 7.2% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Indoxacarb 6.7% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Malathion 5.4% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Permethrin Total 5.2% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Flonicamid 3.7% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
DDT p,p' 3.7% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Thiamethoxam 2.5% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Simazine 2.5% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
o-Phenylphenol 2.4% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Cyhalothrin, Total (Cyhalothrin-L + R157836 epimer) 2.1% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Spiromesifen Total (parent + enol metabolite) 2.0% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Metalaxyl 1.9% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Dimethoate 1.9% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Cyfluthrin 1.7% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Esfenvalerate+Fenvalerate Total 1.7% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Pendimethalin 1.7% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Spiromesifen 1.6% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Chlorpyrifos 1.6% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Chlorpropham 1.3% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Clothianidin 1.3% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Dimethomorph 1.2% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Fenamidone 1.2% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Cyhalothrin, Lambda 1.2% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Spinosad D 1.2% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Permethrin trans 1.2% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Permethrin cis 1.2% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Chlordane cis 1.2% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Linuron 1.2% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Endrin 1.2% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Triflumizole 1.0% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Quintozene (PCNB) 1.0% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Malaoxon 1.0% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Carbaryl 1.0% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Diazinon 1.0% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Oxydemeton methyl sulfone 0.9% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Dinotefuran 0.6% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Tebufenozide 0.6% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Omethoate 0.6% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Trifloxystrobin 0.4% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Myclobutanil 0.3% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Diazinon oxon 0.3% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods
Methomyl 0.3% Conventional
vs. Organic

Other Foods


Footnotes

1. Tests for any given food are often conducted in multiple years. In all cases WhatsOnMyFood shows only the most recent test year. The test results for Greens, Kale come from test year 2008.

2. All pesticide residue results on this page and elsewhere on the WhatsOnMyFood website were obtained by the United Stated Department of Agriculture (USDA) Pesticide Data Program (PDP)

3. Punzi, JS, Lamont, M, Haynes, D, Epstein, RL, USDA Pesticide Data Program: Pesticide Residues on Fresh and Processed Fruit and Vegetables, Grains, Meats, Milk, and Drinking Water, Outlooks on Pesticide Management, June, 2005. Available online

4. All toxicological data was either compiled for this site — typically from U.S. EPA reregistration eligibility decisions — or obtained from data compiled for the PesticideInfo website

5. Includes pesticides that are moderately acutely toxic, highly acutely toxic or chronically toxic to honeybees.

6. The percentage found is for all four of the following combinations combined: domestic or imported, and conventional or organic. To see data broken down into each of these combinations separately, click on "Conventional vs. Organic."

7. A pesticide residue may not be listed as carcinogenic, neurotoxic, hormone-disrupting or as a reproductive or developmental toxicant for either of two reasons: (1) it may have been studied for toxicity in one or more of these categories and the weight of the evidence did not support designating it as toxic, or (2) it may not have been studied.